US Presidential elections are held in which the electors elect their President in an indirect manner. US citizens elect members for the US Electoral College who in turn elect the President. The first elections were held in 1789. Looking into the history of the US Presidential elections held so far, there are a series of interesting facts. Know these facts and walk through the history in this interesting quiz. In the next series of quiz on the presidential elections you will learn about the candidate eligibility and voting procedure.
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Question 1 of 10
1. Question1 points
The Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education overturnedCorrect
In 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Brown v. Board of Edu- cation, effectively overturning the constitutionality of “separate but equal” established in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision. The NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall successfully proved that segregated educational institutions were inherently unequal, and the Supreme Court ordered school districts to integrate their schools with all “deliberate speed.” The
1964 Civil Rights Act further ended discrimination in the United States by outlawing racial discrimination by employers as well as unions. In 1952 the Supreme Court’s Youngstown decision limited the power of the president to seize private property. The case was based on an attempt made by the president to seize a steel production facility that was threatening to strike during the Korean War. The Dred Scott decision of 1857 ruled that Congress could not outlaw or limit the expansion of slavery into states and territories and that slaves were not citizens and were not protected under the Constitution. This decision was nullified by ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868. The 1947 Taft-Hartley Act limited the power of unions by outlawing closed shops and required anti-communist oaths to be taken by union officials.Incorrect
Question 2 of 10
2. Question1 points
CORE and the SCLC were similar in that both organizationsCorrect
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), founded in 1942, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), founded by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and oth- ers in 1957, both advocated challenging discrimination within the United States through nonviolent means. The founders of CORE and the SCLC were inspired by the nonviolent or passive resistance adopted by Mohandas Gandhi in India. CORE established Freedom Rides, in which African-American and white volunteers traveled through the South, chal- lenging Jim Crow laws. The SCLC’s first major action was the Montgomery bus boycott in 1957. Both movements worked together through the 1950s and 1960s to fight against segregation and for racial equality. In 1963 the two groups organized the March on Wash- ington, where King delivered his now immortal “I Have a Dream” speech. The massive march eventually led to the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 National Voting Rights Act.Incorrect
Question 3 of 10
3. Question1 points
The approaches of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X to the civil rights movement differed in thatCorrect
In many ways, Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X illustrated a split within the African-American population during the 1960s. While King fought for desegregation and racial equality, Malcolm X advocated black nationalism, which called for a separate identity and racial unity within African-American communities. This reflected the ideals expressed by Marcus Garvey, a major influence on Malcolm X, during the 1920s. Later, Malcolm X’s calls for black nationalism would be adopted by Stokely Carmichael, a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee who modified these views into a movement that became known as black power, which also called for establishing a sense of pride and independence within African-American communities.Incorrect
Question 4 of 10
4. Question1 points
The civil rights movement’s Freedom Summer and the Selma MarchCorrect
During the summer of 1964 and in March 1965, civil rights organizations launched movements to bring attention to the lack of voting rights in African-American communities in the South. The 1964 event known as Freedom Summer saw more than
3,000 African-American and white volunteers register voters in Mississippi. In 1965, Mar- tin Luther King Jr., recognizing that many black residents of Alabama were still being denied the right to vote, organized a march to raise awareness. Alabama law enforcement officials, however, used violent means to break up the march. News agencies captured images of the brutal tactics being employed against the peaceful protestors, raising sympa- thies among many northern whites. These two events helped push the passage of the 1965
Voting Rights Act, which eliminated barriers to voting such as literacy tests and allowed federal officials to register voters if the local government refused. The 1964 Civil Rights Act, which banned discriminatory practices in employment, education, and public accommoda- tions, was passed partly in response to the 1963 March on Washington. The black-power movement and the Black Panthers illustrated the formation of a more militant arm of the civil rights movement that emerged after 1966. Stokely Carmichael popularized the notion of black power through his organization, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commit- tee. The Black Panthers were founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton. Both organiza- tions reflected Malcolm X’s call for black pride within independent black communities. The Southern Manifesto was issued in 1956 by white southern leaders, pledging to fight desegregation in the wake of the Brown v. Board of Education decision.Incorrect
Question 5 of 10
5. Question1 points
Which of the following was not part of the 1964 Civil Rights Act?Correct
The ratification of the Twenty-Fourth Amendment in 1964 officially made poll taxes unconstitutional. Poll taxes had been used by several southern states to keep poor African-Americans from voting. This constitutional amendment, along with the 1965
Voting Rights Act, politically empowered many African-Americans, creating a new voting population in the South. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination in jobs, education, and public accommodations, and it supported early attempts to help African- Americans register to vote.Incorrect
Question 6 of 10
6. Question1 points
Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society ended primarily due toCorrect
Even though President Johnson believed the United States could simultaneously fight in the Vietnam War and continue his ambitious Great Society domestic policy, the heavy costs of Vietnam drained money from Johnson’s domestic programs and undermined the Great Society. The Great Society did have a wide-reaching impact, which included Medicare programs, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the creation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and clean-air and clean-water regula- tions, while at the same time cutting taxes. After Martin Luther King Jr. was killed in 1968, race riots broke out in numerous American cities. Johnson created the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, also known as the Kerner Commission, to investigate the causes. The commission found that the nation was deeply divided along racial lines. Johnson responded by pushing for the passage of the 1968 Civil Rights Act, which barred discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. In a program started by Kennedy, Johnson’s administration successfully completed a manned lunar shuttle landing on July 20, 1969, through the Apollo program.Incorrect
Question 7 of 10
7. Question1 points
Which leader is not paired with the cause he or she is associated with?Correct
The 1960s were a time of political activism in many areas of American life. One example was the publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, a leader in the environmen- tal movement. Carson’s book helped bring about the banning of the pesticide DDT, which had a deep and deadly impact on the environment by contaminating water supplies and killing off or endangering many species of fish and birds, including the bald eagle, which almost became extinct. Her book also prompted President Johnson to include environmen- tal reforms in his Great Society program. Carson was not, however, involved in the efforts of Japanese-American citizens who had been forced into internment camps and later fought to be compensated for losses they had suffered. The Japanese American Citizens League began to push for legislation for monetary compensation for losses during the Second World War, which they finally settled in 1965. Author Betty Friedan reawakened the women’s rights movement with the publication of her book Feminine Mystique in 1963. In 1966 Friedan went on to help form the National Organization for Women (NOW), which campaigned for equal rights for women. César Chávez created the United Farm Workers (UFW) dur- ing the 1960s to improve the labor conditions and treatment of migrant workers. Dennis Banks, along with George Mitchell, established the American Indian Movement (AIM) in
1968 to fight for treaty rights as well as better conditions and opportunities for the Native American people. Ralph Nader emerged during the 1960s as a leader in consumer rights. His 1965 work Unsafe at Any Speed helped bring about new automobile safety standards. Nader also led movements to address environmental concerns, practices of the meatpacking industry, and other areas of public concern.Incorrect
Question 8 of 10
8. Question1 points
President Kennedy tried to keep communism out of Vietnam byCorrect
When President Kennedy took office, he attempted to keep communism from spreading into southern Vietnam. He did this by sending several thousand military advisers and other military assistance to prop up the government led by Ngo Dinh Diem against the communist northern Viet Cong, led by Ho Chi Minh. After the 1964 Second Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which the American destroyer Maddox was allegedly attacked by Viet Cong torpedo boats, Congress gave President Johnson the authority to send more troops into the region, officially starting the Vietnam War. In 1970, President Nixon began a bombing campaign in Cambodia, a neighboring country to Vietnam, to disrupt Viet Cong supply routes known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail.Incorrect
Question 9 of 10
9. Question1 points
President Johnson escalated the Vietnam War in response to theCorrect
The major escalation of American troops in Vietnam began after an American destroyer, the Maddox, was allegedly attacked 30 miles south of Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. Congress responded in 1964 by passing the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave the president nearly complete control of American military actions in Vietnam without officially declaring war. While the Vietnam conflict officially began for the United States with the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, American involvement had begun much earlier when the French withdrew from the region in 1954 and the United States became involved to keep the Viet Cong from leading a communist revolution in southern Vietnam. The My Lai Massacre refers to a mass killing of unarmed citizens in South Vietnam by the U.S. Army including a soldier named William Calley, who was later sentenced to three years in prison. The Pentagon Papers, a military report on American military actions in Vietnam, were leaked to American newspapers in 1971. They exposed that the military had expanded the war by bombing the neighboring countries of Cambodia and Laos and by launching coastal raids on North Vietnam. This caused a further decline in support for the war and hurt the Nixon administration.Incorrect
Question 10 of 10
10. Question1 points
During the Vietnam War, television influenced popular opinion of the conflict byCorrect
Many historians consider the Vietnam War to have been the first truly televised war. As violence escalated in the conflict, the brutality of the fighting became a major focus of the evening news, bringing the events into the living rooms of American households. In 1965, one network showed a story of American soldiers setting fire to the thatched roofs of a Vietnamese village with lighters and mistreating the residents, creating a massive public outcry. In 1968, during the Tet Offensive, broadcasts were aired showing a South Vietnamese colonel executing a prisoner on the streets of Saigon. Furthermore, in 1972, American television audiences were able to witness firsthand the effects of an accidental napalm bombing of Vietnamese refugees fleeing a village. These images, along with the cost of the war both fiscally and in human lives, began to greatly turn American public opinion against the war and fueled an antiwar movement in the nation.Incorrect