World War I (WWI ) or First World War was a global war coming from Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million armed forces workers, consisting of 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest battles in history.Over 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians passed away as a result of the war , a casualty rate aggravated by the belligerents’ technical and also commercial class, as well as the tactical arrest caused by gruelling trench warfare. And the Roaring Twenties is a term for Western society and society in the 1920s.
It was a period of sustained financial success with an unique social edge in the United States, Canada and Western Europe, particularly in significant cities such as New York City, Montreal, Chicago, Detroit, Paris, Berlin, London and also Los Angeles. In France as well as Quebec, it was called the “années folles” (“Crazy Years”), stressing the age’s social, imaginative as well as social dynamism. Jazz songs developed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, Art Deco came to a head, and also, following hyper-emotional nationalism after World War I, normalcy went back to national politics. This period saw the massive use autos, telephones, motion pictures, radio, as well as electrical energy; commercial, guest, as well as products aeronautics; in addition to unmatched industrial growth, sped up consumer demand, plus substantial changes in way of living and also culture. The media concentrated on celebs, particularly sports heroes and also film celebrities, as cities rooted for their residence groups and filled up the new palatial cinemas as well as big sporting activities stadiums. In most major countries, ladies won the right to vote. Click here for Quiz on US Post Civil War and Reconstruction Period
Test Your Knowledge on The First World War and the Roaring Twenties
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Question 1 of 10
1. Question1 points
Which of the following was not a direct factor leading to World War I?Correct
Fascism is a political ideology that places the nation and its often autocratic leader above the individual citizen. It is often accompanied by fanatic nationalism and rejection of the socialist political ideology. In the wake of World War I, numerous European states began to adopt fascist regimes. After Italy received what it believed was an unfair deal with the Treaty of Versailles, Benito Mussolini rose to power and installed a fascist regime. It forcefully destroyed the socialist party and created a single-party authoritarian state. Hitler’s rise to power through his Nazi Party in Germany also illustrates the creation of the fascist state in the years following the First World War. While the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalists in 1914 ultimately led to the first shots of the First World War, numerous underpinnings served as the “long fuse” that created the environ- ment for the largest military conflict in history to that point. The rise of imperialism during the 19th century, as illustrated by the race to Africa and the partitioning of Asian markets, created tensions among European nations. One expression of these tensions was the First and Second Moroccan Crisis, in which Germany attempted to intervene in French-held Morocco. To better control and protect their empires, nations created large armies and navies. These large militaries were made possible by an increase in populations as well as by factories, which made mass production possible. Furthermore, nations began to create interconnected secret alliances for military protection, as well as to isolate rival powers. After the assassination of the Austrian archduke, other nations were brought into a conflict that did not directly concern them. Finally, jingoism, or extreme nationalism, created immense patriotism that fueled popular support for wars.Incorrect
Question 2 of 10
2. Question1 points
Which of the following was not a reason for the initial American neutrality during the First World War?Correct
Interwoven treaties brought the major nations of Europe into the First World War, while the United States’ policy in the early 20th century still in many ways followed George Washington’s call to avoid creation of intertwining treaties. Wilson was elected in
1916 in part because of the notion that he had kept the nation out of war. In doing so, he hoped he could lead the peace following the conflict. This is illustrated through Wilson’s Fourteen Points, which laid out his plans for maintaining international peace. Neutral- ity was also initially important because the U.S. population consisted of people from all nations. Ethnic Germans and Irish supported the Central Powers (Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire), while Slavic peoples supported the Allies (Great Britain, Russia, and France). Furthermore, the connection of a common language caused others to support Britain and its allies. Businesses also found it profitable to maintain neutrality because it allowed them to openly trade with both sides of the conflict.Incorrect
Question 3 of 10
3. Question1 points
The United States responded to the sinking of the Lusitania and other passenger ships byCorrect
In 1915, the passenger ship Lusitania was sunk by German submarines, killing 128 Americans. Wilson called the action an act of barbarism but continued his push to keep the United States out of war. He demanded the end to the unrestricted use of submarine warfare. Eventually, in March 1916, after the sinking of the passenger ship Sussex, Germany issued the Sussex Pledge, stating three important promises: (1) German submarines would no longer target passenger ships; (2) merchant ships would not be attacked unless they were known to be carrying weapons; and (3) provisions would be made for personnel and passengers of merchant ships to get off the ship safely prior to its destruction. Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in January 1917 and interception of the Zim- merman Telegram, which outlined an attempted alliance with Mexico against the United States, eventually led the Americans to enter the war against Germany on April 6, 1917. Wilson issued his Fourteen Points on January 8, 1918, after the United States had entered the war, to assure the American people that the United States had entered the conflict for moral reasons and to guide the world to postwar peace.Incorrect
Question 4 of 10
4. Question1 points
Which of the following events most directly brought the United States into the First World War?Correct
On January 22, 1917, President Wilson made one last attempt to call for the end of the First World War with a “peace without victory.” Germany had recently begun to make considerable gains in the fighting in Europe, and on January 31, 1917, Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare. The announcement led Italy to join the Allied forces, because it was worried that it would lose access to the Adriatic Sea. This use of unrestricted submarine warfare would also challenge the naval blockade Britain had had in place since 1915. For the United States, the use of unrestricted subma- rine warfare gave the nation little choice but to go to war, but Wilson waited for an “actual overt act” to take place. This act occurred when German submarines sunk seven unarmed American merchant ships and British intelligence agents intercepted the Zimmerman Tele- gram, which called for Mexico to ally with Germany against the United States (see answer to question 389).Incorrect
Question 5 of 10
5. Question1 points
Who led the American Expeditionary Force during World War I?Correct
John J. Pershing was appointed commander in chief of the American Expedi- tionary Force in 1917 and led the American troops during the First World War. During that time, he obtained the rank of General of the Armies, the highest rank to be awarded to a member of the U.S. Army. Nicknamed “Black Jack,” he earned a strong reputation as a leader, and his actions guided many generals during the Second World War, including Eisenhower, who led the invasion of Normandy and served as the Supreme Allied Com- mander. Before leading the American Expeditionary Force, Pershing served in the Spanish- American War and the Philippine-American War, and he led the ill-fated expedition into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa during the Mexican Revolution. Ferdinand Foch, a French marshal, served as the commander of all Allied troops during World War I, but Pershing convinced Foch to have the American troops fight as a separate army and not be put under the command of a foreign government. Field Marshal Douglas Haig led the British Expedi- tionary Force throughout World War I. Smedley Butler was a U.S. Marine during the First World War, though while stationed in Europe, he was not directly involved in the fighting. After the war, he advocated for the Bonus Army at the start of the Great Depression.Incorrect
Question 6 of 10
6. Question1 points
What was the Great Migration during the First World War?Correct
The Great Migration during the First World War refers to the mass migration of African-Americans from the South to cities in the North and Midwest. Between 1910 and 1920, nearly 1.75 million individuals relocated. The reason for this migration was the increased demand for factory workers, especially in war industries. An example of new access to industrial jobs was Ford’s opening of his factories to African-American employees in 1914. Furthermore, the southern agricultural economy was experiencing an extended period of agricultural decline. Matters were made worse by the boll weevil, an insect that decimated southern crops. Finally, many African-Americans had become fed up with the continued discrimination and segregation that had become institutionalized in the south- ern states. However, these new immigrants in the North were often faced with extreme prejudice in their new homes as well. The competition with white workers for jobs created tensions that often erupted into violence, as illustrated by the 1919 Chicago race riot, in which 38 people were killed and 520 injured. This migration did help the formulation of cultural movements such as the Harlem Renaissance and allowed the early civil rights movement to expand.Incorrect
Question 7 of 10
7. Question1 points
Which of the following statements best illustrates a challenge faced by the United States following the First World War?Correct
On November 11, 1918, the fighting in World War I officially ceased. Yet the challenges created by the conflict were by no means over. By 1919, nearly 4,000 American servicemen were returning home per day, yet the government had made no plans to help them merge back into society. With wartime production slowing, government regulation of industries ending, and the job positions filled during the war, the nation faced massive job shortages. Women, who had played a major role in the war industries during the conflict, were pressured to resign or were fired to free up positions for returning men. Returning white soldiers found they had been replaced in their civilian jobs by African-Americans. The resulting economic recession marred the first part of the 1920s and further fueled racial tensions within the United States.Incorrect
Question 8 of 10
8. Question1 points
The purpose of Selective Service during the First World War was toCorrect
In May 1917, the U.S. government passed the Selective Service Act, authorizing a draft of young men to fill the shortage of soldiers needed for military service. After the United States initially declared war on Germany, the U.S. military was still relatively small, and only roughly 32,000 new soldiers had enlisted. When General Pershing arrived in Europe with America’s initial force, he quickly realized that many more soldiers would be required. The Selective Service Act required that all men ages 21 to 30 register for military service, and the following year, the requirement was extended to include all men 18 to 45. In a departure from earlier uses of the draft, such as during the Civil War, the men called to service could not hire a substitute. Furthermore, while the Civil War draft led to mas- sive riots, the World War I draft met with relatively little resistance; it generally had great support.Incorrect
Question 9 of 10
9. Question1 points
A main reason many Republican senators objected to the plan for the League of Nations was thatCorrect
As part of Wilson’s Fourteen Points for creating peace after World War I, he called for the creation of the League of Nations. The league was to be an organization that would represent the countries of the world and help ensure security and peace among its member states. Many in the United States rejected the idea of the league, feeling it would interfere with the independence of America’s foreign policy. Article X in particular became a stick- ing point, especially for many Republican senators. The article stated that an attack on one member state would be considered an attack on all other members. The senators felt that this type of agreement could potentially drag the nation into another world war. Ultimately, the United States rejected membership in the League of Nations. Without the United States, and given Russia’s rejection of membership, the league’s success was greatly limited. Most notably, it was unable to prevent the Second World War. It did, however, serve as a working model for the later creation of the United Nations following World War II.Incorrect
Question 10 of 10
10. Question1 points
Why was the Battle of Château-Thierry significant for the American military?Correct
The Battle of Château-Thierry took place on July 18, 1918, and was one of the earliest military actions of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) under General John “Black Jack” Pershing. Prior to the battle, the German army had advanced its position to only 50 miles outside Paris. Russia’s departure from the war following the Bolshevik Revo- lution freed up German soldiers who had previously been fighting on the eastern front, allowing them to increase their assault in the west. The arrival of fresh American troops, however, allowed the Allies to bolster their position and launch a massive counteroffensive as part of the second Marne Campaign. The combined forces of the Americans and French were able to break through the German line, eventually causing the German military to pull back, and Paris was saved from German occupation. While Château-Thierry is often called a turning point in the war, heavy fighting would continue until November of that year, and Americans would suffer over 250,000 casualties by the time an armistice was signed.Incorrect