‘Standing Orders’ defines the conditions of recruitment, discharge, disciplinary action, holidays, leave, etc., go a long way towards minimising friction between the management and workers in industrial undertakings. The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act requires employers in industrial establishments to clearly define the conditions of employment by issuing standing orders duly certified.
The text of the Standing Orders as finally certified under this Act shall be prominently posted by the employer in English and in the language understood by the majority of his workmen on special boards to be maintained for the purpose at or near the entrance through which the majority of the workmen enter the industrial establishment and in all departments thereof where the workmen are employed.
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Question 1 of 10
1. Question1 points
How did the Second New Deal differ from the First New Deal during the Depression?Correct
In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt launched what has become known as his Second New Deal, or Second Hundred Days in part to respond to his critics who stated he had not done enough for the average citizen’s welfare. This was clearly illustrated through the 1935 Social Security Act, which established the Social Security system. Under this system, the government would provide support to those unable to support themselves. It included old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, and aid for the disabled. Further- more, programs under the Second New Deal imposed tighter controls on business and gave more support to unions, as illustrated by the 1835 Wagner Act. This legislation protected union practices such as collective bargaining while outlawing spying on union activity and blacklisting union members. The Second New Deal also offered further job relief for the poor, such as the Works Progress Administration, which provided government jobs to nearly eight million adults, and the National Youth Administration, which offered educa- tion, recreation, employment, and counseling for young adults (ages 16 to 25). The Second New Deal, like the first, had many critics. The Revenue Act of 1935 was also called the Wealth Tax because it created a series of higher taxes on the rich. Other acts, such as the Tennessee Valley Project, were seen as socialist. A large number of critics saw both New Deals as an overexpansion of government. Meanwhile, other critics said the two New Deals did not go far enough in improving the lives of the poor, women, and minorities.Incorrect
Question 2 of 10
2. Question1 points
Huey Long and Upton Sinclair criticized the New Deal on the grounds thatCorrect
Upton Sinclair, the muckraking author of The Jungle, and Huey “Kingfish” Long, a senator from Louisiana, initially supported Roosevelt’s rise to the presidency. Yet they soon began to rally against the president because they felt he did too little to address the needs of the poor or address the imbalance of wealth in the nation. Sinclair, in his bid for the governorship of California, called for higher inheritance and income taxes as well as pensions for the elderly. Huey Long called for a minimum income for all families of $5,000, paid for by dividing up the wealth of millionaires. Long was considered a possible challenger for the presidency in 1936 but was shot and killed at the Louisiana statehouse in 1935. Another notable critic of Roosevelt’s New Deal was Father Charles Coughlin, a radio evangelist, who used his weekly broadcasts to openly criticize the president’s policies. He held a strong stance against international banking and called for nationalizing banks, utilities, and natural resources. Not all critics supported nationalization and redistribu- tion of wealth. William Randolph Hearst, a onetime supporter of the Democratic Party, criticized Roosevelt’s heavy taxes on the wealthy and the inheritance tax. Other politicians, including Robert Taft, the Republican senator from Ohio, saw the New Deal as creeping socialism. The American Liberty League, which emerged in 1934, spearheaded much of the New Deal opposition. The league was headed by Alfred Smith, the former Democratic challenger to Herbert Hoover. It included numerous heads of business and politicians, who argued that the New Deal violated the Constitution and was leading the nation to Bolshevism.Incorrect
Question 3 of 10
3. Question1 points
What did economist John Maynard Keynes say was necessary to restart the economy during the Depression?Correct
During the 1920s and 1930s, the famous British economist John Maynard Keynes argued that the government could best address economic crises such as the Depres- sion through spending. He felt that if the government gave money to consumers, either with direct government payments or indirectly through government jobs, people would purchase more consumer goods, and the economy would begin to grow. This idea is the basis for what is called Keynesian economics and also has been referred to as pump priming. Later, during Ronald Reagan’s presidency, this theory was rejected, and the idea of supply- side economics was adopted. Under this theory, also known as trickle-down economics, the government should cut taxes to businesses and investors, allowing the businesses to expand and hire more workers, thereby allowing the economy to grow.Incorrect
Question 4 of 10
4. Question1 points
During the Great Depression, the “Black Cabinet” referred toCorrect
While the New Deal programs were often racially discriminatory, Roosevelt often sought the advice of African-American public-policy advisers, often called the “Black Cabi- net” or the Federal Council of Negro Affairs. The cabinet focused on civil rights and racial inequality. However, Roosevelt, not wanting to alienate southern Democrats, declined to support anti-lynching legislation or bans of the poll tax in the South. Members of the Black Cabinet included Dr. Robert Weaver, a Harvard economist who advised on race relations. In 1966, Weaver became the first black cabinet member, serving under Lyndon Johnson as secretary of housing and urban development.Incorrect
Question 5 of 10
5. Question1 points
Frances Perkins gained prominence during the Great Depression byCorrect
In 1933, Frances Perkins was appointed secretary of labor, making her the first American female to hold a position in the presidential cabinet. Perkins had gained notoriety earlier as a leader of the New York Consumers League, where in response to the Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire in 1910, she fought for improved conditions and working hours. Fiercely loyal to Roosevelt, she and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only cabinet members of the Roosevelt administration who served for his entire presidency. The photog- rapher famous for capturing images of families displaced by the Depression was Dorothea Lange, who became one of America’s most highly regarded photographers. The first African- American to hold a cabinet position was Dr. Robert Weaver, who was appointed secretary of housing and urban development in 1966 under Lyndon B. Johnson. Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin Roosevelt, arranged to have the great concert singer Marian Anderson perform in front of the Lincoln Memorial after the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to let her sing in Constitution Hall, located in Washington D.C., because she was black.Incorrect
Question 6 of 10
6. Question1 points
The main purpose of the Lend-Lease Program was toCorrect
The Lend-Lease Program began in March 1941 with the passage of the Lend- Lease Act. Its intent was to allow the U.S. government to lend, lease, or sell military sup- plies and defense aids to any nation that the United States deemed vital for the defense of America. Roosevelt compared the policy to lending a hose to a neighbor if one saw that the neighbor’s house was on fire. During the war, nearly $50 billion in goods were appropriated to this program. Aid was initially offered to Britain and France. Later, the Soviet Union was also permitted to take part in the program after it entered the war following Hitler’s June
22, 1941, invasion of nearly three million men crossing the German-Soviet border. While economic recovery was not initially the program’s intent, the increased wartime production that was in part due to the Lend-Lease Program helped to pull the United States out of the Great Depression. In September 1939, prior to the start of the Second World War, the United States was already providing aid to protect democratic governments on the Euro- pean continent. During the Spanish Civil War, the United States provided non-weapon goods to the republican government’s Loyalists against Franco’s fascist uprising on what was called a cash and carry basis. This was done with the passage of the Third Neutrality Act in May of 1937.Incorrect
Question 7 of 10
7. Question1 points
The Atlantic Charter was an agreement betweenCorrect
The Atlantic Charter was an agreement signed by President Franklin Roosevelt and the British prime minister on August 14, 1941, off the coast of Newfoundland on a battleship. The document was drafted secretly and contained several main principles that outlined the two nations’ war aims. They included that neither nation would pursue ter- ritorial expansion during the conflict, no territorial changes would be made without the agreement of the region’s inhabitants, and both nations would promote self-determination for all people, free trade, promotion of better future cooperation between nations to avoid aggression, and the disarmament of the aggressor nations. Within 15 months after the Atlantic Charter’s release, 15 other nations endorsed the document. This is similar in many ways to the principles of the Fourteen Points issued by Woodrow Wilson as the United States entered the First World War. Furthermore, the Atlantic Charter later served as the basis for the formation of the United Nations after the Second World War.Incorrect
Question 8 of 10
8. Question1 points
In response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the United StatesCorrect
In response to the 1931 Japanese invasion of the iron- and coal-rich Chinese province of Manchuria, the United States issued the Stimson Doctrine. The doctrine stated that the United States would not recognize any territorial gains taken by force. The doctrine had little effect on Japanese policy. The Japanese proceeded to set up a puppet government in Manchuria. When the League of Nations protested, Japan withdrew from the organiza- tion. Japan then violated the 1922 Five Powers Treaty and began to enlarge its navy. After Japan forced the Vichy government (the puppet government established in France by Ger- many) to allow it to construct military bases in southern Indochina (modern-day Vietnam) in 1941, Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets within the United States. Japan responded by doing the same to U.S. assets in Japan. This brought trade between the two nations to a halt. The United States ultimately declared war on the Japanese on December 7, 1941, after its planes bombed the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. This action brought the United States into the Second World War. The Good Neighbor Policy refers to a program started by Coolidge and Hoover but most notably continued by Roosevelt. The Good Neighbor Policy, as announced at the conference of Latin American nations in 1933, aimed to end American armed intervention in the region. The United States instituted this policy in 1934 by ending the Platt Amendment and withdrawing U.S. forces from Haiti. The first Neutrality Act, passed in 1935, was one of three neutrality acts passed before the United States’ entrance into the Second World War. The act was written in response to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia. The first Neutrality Act stated that the United States would not sell or ship arms to nations involved in a conflict and warned U.S. citizens traveling to such regions that they did so at their own risk. The 1936 second Neutrality Act expanded the first to include prohibitions on loaning money or credit to warring nations. The third Neutral- ity Act, passed in 1937, gave the government more flexibility by allowing the president to permit the sale of non-war-related materials on a cash-and-carry basis. This was in response to the civil war in Spain, where fascist forces under General Francisco Franco overthrew the republican government in the summer of 1936.Incorrect
Question 9 of 10
9. Question1 points
Due to the forceful advancement of the Japanese military, General Douglas MacArthur was forced to withdraw fromCorrect
After Japan’s successful attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Japa- nese military began to absorb the islands of Guam, British-held Hong Kong, and Singapore. In the spring of 1942, the Japanese military defeated a combined force of American and Filipino troops. General Douglas MacArthur was forced to retreat from the island on March
10, 1942. At that point, he delivered his immortal promise, “I shall return,” and escaped with his troops to Australia. MacArthur was true to his promise and launched his Philip- pines campaign in October 1944, securing the island nation with the conclusion of the war.Incorrect
Question 10 of 10
10. Question1 points
The main goal of the America First Committee was toCorrect
Founded in 1940, the America First Committee (AFC) was one of the largest antiwar movements in American history. The committee used its massive membership to create a petition to force President Roosevelt to maintain neutrality. The group staunchly fought against the Lend-Lease Program and rejected the Atlantic Charter. Other goals of the organization further illustrate its isolationist ideals: the AFC supported heavily fortifying the United States by pursuing an impregnable system of defense, as well as ending all aid to war- ring nations. The AFC contained many notable members, including future president Gerald Ford, but the organization fell apart after the Japanese surprise attack at Pearl Harbor.Incorrect