Attempt this Multiple Choice Quiz on Post Civil War and Reconstruction and check how much you can score. The Civil War (1861-65) was probably the most momentous occasion in American history. The survival of the United States as one nation went to danger, and also on the result of the war depended the nation’s ability to give truth the ideals of liberty, equality, human self-respect, and also justice. Abraham Lincoln’s political election to the presidency in 1860 gave an orgasm the long festering argument about the relative powers of the government and also the state federal governments. By the time of his launch, 6 Southern states had withdrawed from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America, soon to be adhered to by 5 more.
The battle that followed between North as well as South placed constitutional government to its severest examination. After 4 bloody years of battle, the Union was maintained, four million African American slaves were released, and also an entire nation was released from the oppressive weight of slavery. The war can be viewed in several different means: as the final, violent phase in a conflict of two regional subcultures; as the breakdown of a democratic political system; as the orgasm of several years of social reform; or as a pivotal phase in American racial background. Nonetheless interpreted, the Civil War stands as a tale of great heroism, sacrifice, victory, and misfortune. As vital as the war itself was the tangled issue of ways to reconstruct the beat South. Motivated by the 13th, 14th, as well as 15th changes to the Constitution, African Americans finally nourished expect complete equality. Their hopes were to be rushed. By 1877 Southern white resistance and also the withdrawal of federal supervision produced the “redemption” of the South and African Americans were disenfranchised. The redemption gauges implemented better racial splitting up as well as increased white intimidation as well as physical violence.
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Question 1 of 10
1. Question1 points
Which action under Reconstruction officially overturned the Dred Scott decision?Correct
The Fourteenth Amendment was created as part of the Reconstruction amend- ments. It was ratified on July 9, 1868. The amendment, which had five parts, opened citizen- ship to all people regardless of race or color and guaranteed due process and equal protection to all citizens. It also extended protections under the Bill of Rights to the state government. Before the Fourteenth Amendment, it was deemed that these protections applied only to the federal government. The amendment overturned the 1857 Dred Scott decision, which declared that African-Americans were not citizens and therefore were not protected under the Constitution. Furthermore, the equal-protection clause was later used as grounds for the
1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, which helped end segregation.Incorrect
Question 2 of 10
2. Question1 points
During the period of Reconstruction, the term scalawags referred toCorrect
Following the Civil War, many Southerners saw whites who supported the actions of Reconstruction or became members of the Republican Party as traitors. They were given the nickname “scalawag.” The term was derived from a Scottish word referring to a small or sickly cow. Many who fell into this category were poor farmers who resented the wealthy plantation class that had controlled the South prior to the war. Northern Republicans who moved South following the war to make a profit were nicknamed “carpetbaggers” by many Southerners. They were criticized for being profiteers and stealing jobs and industry from Southerners.Incorrect
Question 3 of 10
3. Question1 points
Which government action extended suffrage to African-American males during Reconstruction?Correct
The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified in February 1869 and stated that no citi- zen could be denied the right to vote because of race or color. Furthermore, citizens could not be denied the right to vote because they had been slaves. Even though the Fifteenth Amendment was not ratified until 1869, as early as 1867 the military had begun to regis- ter African-Americans in the South following the passage of the Reconstruction Act. The Freedman’s Bureau was created to provide aid to the millions of displaced people, black and white, following the end of the war. The Sixteenth Amendment did not deal with Recon- struction but instead with Congress’s ability to levy an income tax. See answers to questions
295 and 297 for discussion of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments.Incorrect
Question 4 of 10
4. Question1 points
President Johnson was impeached officially because heCorrect
American political history was made in February 1868 when Andrew Johnson became the first president to be officially impeached. In an impeachment, the House of Representatives officially charges an official with committing an illegal act. Though the main reason Congress moved to impeach Johnson was political and partisan disagreements, the main justification was that he had violated the Tenure of Office Act, which was passed in 1867 (see answer to question 294). In 1868, President Johnson attempted to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who had been appointed under Lincoln. This action violated the 1867 act. Ten other charges were made against Johnson, but after his trial in the Senate, Johnson escaped removal from office by one vote.Incorrect
Question 5 of 10
5. Question1 points
The 1869 Supreme Court decision in Texas v. White stated thatCorrect
The 1869 Texas v. White decision strengthened the federal government’s actions during Reconstruction. It announced that states did not possess the legal right to secede and that attempts to separate from the Union were in fact illegal. It also upheld the federal government’s right to restructure southern states’ governments. This act further affirmed the power of the national government over the state governments. The notion of “separate but equal” was upheld by the Supreme Court decision in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson. The
1969 decision in Brandenburg v. Ohio protected the First Amendment right of the Ku Klux Klan and other inflammatory groups to hold rallies. The Fourteenth Amendment protected citizens’ rights regardless of race or color.Incorrect
Question 6 of 10
6. Question1 points
Which of the following actions was not taken by Ulysses S. Grant as president during Reconstruction?Correct
Ulysses S. Grant became a national hero because of his leadership during the Civil War. In 1868, he received an overwhelming majority of the electoral votes, though the popular vote remained relatively close against his Democratic opponent, Horatio Sey- mour. Many credit Grant’s win to the support of African-Americans who were exercising their newly established suffrage for the very first time. While Grant’s administration is often remembered for being marred by corruption, he did oversee several important actions under Reconstruction. He passed legislation promoting black voting rights and oversaw the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment. He also signed the Civil Rights Act of 1875, giving African-Americans equal treatment in jury selection and public accommodations. He also oversaw legislation including the Ku Klux Klan Act and the Enforcement Act to weaken the Klan, effectively wiping it out of existence until it reemerged in the 20th century. He wanted to better unify the nation. This was illustrated by his signing of the Amnesty Act of
1872, which provided pardons to former Confederates. He favored limiting the number of troops to be stationed in the South, worried that too large of a number would create resentment. At the same time, he tried to maintain enough to protect African-Americans and suppress groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.Incorrect
Question 7 of 10
7. Question1 points
During Reconstruction, the Wade-Davis Bill stated that Southern states could reenter the Union afterCorrect
The 1864 Wade-Davis Bill was introduced by Radical Republicans in response to President Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan, which the Republicans saw as too lenient. In Lin- coln’s plan, only 10 percent of the voting population needed to take a loyalty pledge to the Union before the state could reenter the Union politically. The Wade-Davis Bill attempted to increase this number to 50 percent. Lincoln ultimately rejected the bill through a pocket veto. He felt that it would be too difficult to mend the nation if the Wade-Davis Bill were enacted. The insistence that Southern states ratify the Fourteenth Amendment was an inte- gral part of the Radical Republican’s Reconstruction Act of 1867. The Fifteenth Amend- ment was ratified in 1869 during the Grant administration.Incorrect
Question 8 of 10
8. Question1 points
During Reconstruction, most former slaves found employment mainly asCorrect
While Reconstruction did extend many new rights and freedoms to former slaves, the idea of redistributing land was never put into action. Private property was seen as a vital right, so provisions for giving land to former slaves never were carried out. In the South, many plantation owners found themselves with their land but without labor and a means to pay hired hands. Meanwhile, former slaves and poor farmers found themselves with no land to support themselves. This led to the arrangement of sharecropping and tenant farming in the South. The plantation owners divided their land and gave it to the landless farmers to grow crops. At the end of the season, the sharecroppers would give a portion of the harvest to the landowner. This system often became corrupt. After failed harvests, the farmers often found themselves in debt to the landowners and would have to borrow against the following year’s harvest. This cycle of debt often led to situations similar to that under slavery, creating a cycle of poverty for many poor planters.Incorrect
Question 9 of 10
9. Question1 points
The Depression of 1873 most directly resulted inCorrect
In 1873, a major northern banking firm went bankrupt, triggering a long series of financial failures that included banks, railroads, and numerous other companies. As a result, millions of people lost their jobs. This depression lasted for five years, and many began to blame the Grant administration, which was plagued with charges of corruption during the two terms of Grant’s presidency. Though the Republicans retained control of the presidency with the election of Rutherford B. Hayes, through what is often called a corrupt bargain, and maintained the Senate, they lost control of the House of Representatives.Incorrect
Question 10 of 10
10. Question1 points
Which corruption scandal is most associated with the administration of Ulysses S. Grant?Correct
The 1875 Whiskey Ring Scandal was one of several scandals to plague the Grant administration. In 1875, it was discovered that officials in the administration were pock- eting money collected from whiskey taxes. This was one of several corruption cases that emerged during the Grant administration. In 1872, it was discovered that shares of stock in the Crédit Mobilier, a railroad construction company, were being sold to members of Congress at a discounted rate well below market value. It was also discovered that con- gressmen accepted numerous bribes from both the Union Pacific Railroad and the Crédit Mobilier. Grant’s administration was also found to be connected with the 1869 Black Friday Scandal, which involved illegal gold speculation. The Star Route Scandal of 1881 plagued the Garfield administration and involved corruption within the postal service. The Teapot Dome Scandal was one of multiple scandals to plague the Harding administration, while Whitewater marred the Clinton administration during the 1990s.Incorrect