Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
The first enactment dealing with the settlement of industrial disputes was the Employers’ and Workmen’s Disputes
Act, 1860. This Act weighed much against the workers and was therefore replaced by the Trade Disputes Act, 1929. The Act of 1929 contained special provisions regarding strikes in public utility services and general strikes affecting the community as a whole. The main purpose of the Act, however, was to provide a conciliation machinery to bring about peaceful settlement of industrial disputes. The Whitely Commission made in this regard the perceptive observation that the attempt to deal with unrest must begin rather with the creation of an atmosphere unfavourable to disputes than with machinery for their settlement.
The next stage in the development of industrial law in this country was taken under the stress of emergency caused by the Second World War. Rule 81-A of the Defence of India Rules was intended to provide speedy remedies for industrial disputes by referring them compulsorily to conciliation or adjudication, by making the awards legally binding on the parties and by prohibiting strikes or lock-outs during the pendency of conciliation or adjudication proceedings and for two months thereafter. This rule also put a blanket ban on strikes which did not arise out of genuine trade disputes.
With the termination of the Second World War, Rule 81-A was about to lapse on 1st October, 1946, but it was kept alive by issuing an Ordinance in the exercise of the Government’s Emergency Powers. Then followed the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. The provisions of this Act, as amended from time to time, have furnished the basis on which industrial jurisprudence in this country is founded.
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1. Question1 points
Which of the following views of public education was not supported by Horace Mann?Correct
Horace Mann, considered one of the founders of modern public education reform, advocated that schools accept students from diverse backgrounds. See questions
189 and 190 in this chapter for more information on Horace Mann.Incorrect
2. Question1 points
What was the main goal of early-19th-century utopian communities?Correct
Partly in response to the aftereffects of industrialism and the new era of economic capitalism, many reformers of the early 1800s began to question the rapid changes taking place in society. Over the first part of the 1800s, nearly a hundred utopian communities emerged and battled these new trends of societal evils in an effort to create perfect com- munities. Examples of these communities included the Shakers in Oneida, New York, and New Harmony in Indiana, which was founded by the industrialist Robert Owen.Incorrect
3. Question1 points
Which of the following people would be most associated with the utopian communities of the early 1800s?Correct
In 1825, the Scottish industrialist Robert Owen established New Harmony in Indiana. It was to be a utopian community of hardworking, well-educated individuals who would work together for the common good. See the answers for questions 193 and 195 in this chapter for more information on utopian communities.Incorrect
4. Question1 points
John Humphrey Noyes is most associated with which of the following utopian societies?Correct
John Humphrey Noyes established the Oneida Community in New York in 1848. Noyes rejected the traditional rigid religious beliefs held by the Puritans. His beliefs rejected the notion of private property and were also against monogamous marriages. This belief led to persecution from the surrounding communities, so the group relocated itself to Oneida. The Icarians were a French utopian movement that established itself throughout the frontier of the United States, including Texas. The Spring Farm Colony was a utopian community established in 1846 in Wisconsin. The Brook Farm Community was a utopian community that practiced communal living and was founded in Massachusetts during the
1840s. See the answer for question 194 for information on New Harmony.Incorrect
5. Question1 points
………….has been referred to as the Black Moses for helping lead over 300 African slaves to freedom.Correct
Harriet Tubman, born into slavery in Maryland, escaped to freedom in the North in 1849. She returned to the South more than 13 times to lead groups of other slaves to freedom on what has become known as the Underground Railroad. Later, Harriet Tubman would assist the abolitionist John Brown in recruiting members for his intended uprising, and she would serve as a Union spy during the Civil War.Incorrect
6. Question1 points
Which of the following issues caused major divisions in the early abolitionist movement?Correct
As the abolitionist movement grew in the United States, divisions began to appear. One major source of contention was the role that women should be allowed to serve. William Lloyd Garrison allowed women to participate actively in his organization, the American Anti-Slavery Society. This alienated some members, including Arthur and Lewis Tappan, who left the organization and formed their own society, the Liberty Party, in 1840. They felt that female participation went against the appropriate role of women at the time.Incorrect
7. Question1 points
Many Northern workers rejected the goals of the abolitionist movement becauseCorrect
Many workers in the North feared that if slavery were abolished, they would have to compete with African-American workers for factory jobs. It was assumed that the former slaves would be willing to work for lower wages. Many Northern states that outlawed slavery continued to pass laws limiting African-American rights. In some cases, some states would not allow freedmen to take up residency within the state.Incorrect
8. Question1 points
Which of the following characteristics is associated with the 19th-century transcendentalist movement?Correct
The transcendentalist movement emerged as a rejection of what was perceived as the intellectualist doctrine of the institutions of higher learning at the time. Participants in the movement sought understanding beyond empiricism and established ideas, instead trying to rise to a greater level of emotional understanding at a personal and instinctual awareness. Leaders of this movement included Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Walden, written by Henry David Thoreau in 1854, serves as a famous example of both transcendentalist and early-American literature.Incorrect
9. Question1 points
Which of the following people would not be considered a part of the 19th-century transcendentalist movement?Correct
Nathaniel Hawthorne was a critic of the transcendentalist movement, parodying it in his 1852 work The Blithedale Romance. Edgar Allan Poe was also known for his criti- cism and satire of transcendentalism. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Frederick Henry Hedge founded the movement in Massachusetts with the creation of the Transcendental Club in
1836. Thoreau’s Walden is considered by many to be a hallmark of literature within the movement, as is Fuller’s Woman in the Nineteenth Century, which also was an early product of the 19th-century feminist movement.Incorrect
10. Question1 points
Which of the following is not considered part of Ralph Waldo Emerson’s transcendentalist views?Correct
While the transcendentalist movement rejected many notions of the prominent religious beliefs of the early 19th century, Emerson believed strongly in creating an indi- vidual connection to spirituality that transcended established doctrine. His religious views illustrated a connection to many Eastern religions but also strongly supported the notion of divinity within one’s life.Incorrect