Contract Labour – Part 1
Contract Labour is a significant and growing form of employment. It is prevalent in almost all industries and allied operations and also in service sector. It generally refers to workers engaged by a contractor for user enterprise. They have very little bargaining power, have little or no social security and are often engaged in hazardous
occupations endangering their health and safety. The exploitation of workers under this system has been a matter of deep concern for the Government.
Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act is a hope for the contract labour for the protection of their rights. Here is an interesting quiz for you to check your knowledge on the matter.
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Question 1 of 10
1. Question1 points
During his presidency, Richard Nixon’s “southern strategy” policy focused onCorrect
After receiving less than 12 percent of the African-American vote in 1968, Nixon felt he had little to gain by advancing civil rights, so he began to relax desegregation laws. Instead, he focused on gaining the support of the former southern Democrats who felt alienated by the Great Society and civil rights programs of the Johnson administration. John Mitchell, Nixon’s attorney general, attempted to prevent the extension of provisions found in the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Nixon also allowed the restoration of funding to school districts that were still segregated. Furthermore, he tried to interfere with the Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Supreme Court decision, which called for the use of busing to help end school segregation. He also loosened restrictions in earlier fair-housing laws.Incorrect
Question 2 of 10
2. Question1 points
In foreign affairs, President Nixon’s policy of détente was illustrated byCorrect
President Nixon with his secretary of state, Henry Kissinger, adopted a policy of détente, or the relaxing of tensions with the nation’s two biggest rivals, China and the Soviet Union. Under détente, he and Kissinger (one of his most trusted advisers) bypassed Congress and pursued often-secret dialogue with the two nations, changing the direction of American postwar policies. Détente was in many ways an extension of Kissinger’s realpoli- tik, or practical politics. This new approach to foreign affairs allowed for the first presiden- tial visit to the People’s Republic of China and the ending of the embargo with that nation and the lifting of travel restrictions. It also allowed for Nixon to travel to the Soviet Union in 1972. At this meeting, Nixon and Premier Leonid Brezhnev worked together and finally agreed to sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I). This agreement froze the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles and restricted the development of antiballistic missile defense systems.Incorrect
Question 3 of 10
3. Question1 points
The SALT I and SALT II agreements were created primarily toCorrect
SALT stands for Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, and the two agreements served to slow the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, the world’s two superpowers. SALT I was signed by President Nixon and Soviet Premier Brezhnev in
1972, freezing the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles at the 1972 levels, limit- ing the number of atomic weapons that could be launched from submarines, and limiting the development of antiballistic missile defense systems. SALT II was signed by President Carter and Premier Brezhnev. This agreement set a limit on the number of nuclear devices that either nation could possess. The agreement was never ratified by Congress and deterio- rated after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.Incorrect
Question 4 of 10
4. Question1 points
What was the primary reason behind the Watergate break-in in 1972?Correct
In June 1972, four members of the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP), led by James McCord, broke into the Democratic Party headquarters located in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. Their mission was to steal Democratic election files and install wiretapping devices to better monitor the Democratic Party’s actions dur- ing the 1972 election campaign. The men were discovered, and President Nixon denied involvement; but as investigations continued, Nixon’s involvement became more apparent. Eventually, when it was discovered that Nixon had used the CIA to block an FBI investiga- tion of the case, Nixon was forced to resign, which he did on August 8, 1974.Incorrect
Question 5 of 10
5. Question1 points
The combination of inflation and economic recession faced in the United States in 1973 was caused in part byCorrect
To restore lands they had lost to Israel during the Six Days War, Middle East- ern states created an oil embargo to pressure Western nations that supported Israel in
1973. Henry Kissinger managed to negotiate an end of the embargo, but the Organiza- tion of Petroleum Exporting Counties (OPEC)—which included Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran—drastically increased the price of oil. This caused the cost of gaso- line to double and pushed inflation above 10 percent in the United States. The incident became a dark mark on Nixon’s foreign-policy record, unlike the opening of talks with China and the Soviet Union through détente, as well as the signing of SALT I with Russia in 1972. The Camp David Accords were a foreign-policy success of the Carter administra- tion: negotiation of a peace deal ending the war between Egypt and Israel.Incorrect
Question 6 of 10
6. Question1 points
What action did Gerald Ford take to attempt to heal the nation following the Watergate Scandal?Correct
Shortly after taking office in 1974, President Ford issued a presidential pardon to Richard Nixon, ending all investigations into the Watergate Scandal. While this action marred the rest of Ford’s term, he felt it was necessary for allowing the nation’s healing pro- cess to begin. The presidential pardon was only the first challenge Ford faced as president. When he assumed office, the nation faced increasing unemployment and inflation, a combi- nation that was termed “stagflation.” Ford called for voluntary restraints and asked support- ers to wear buttons that said WIN, which stood for Whip Inflation Now. This did little to help the problem, as unemployment increased along with the federal deficit. Ford had mixed success with his foreign policy. When he asked Congress to supply military aid to South Vietnam, legislators used the 1973 War Powers Act to deny his request. However, he did sign the Helsinki Accords, in which the United States, the Soviet Union, Canada, and roughly 30 other nations agreed to economic cooperation, respect for territorial boundaries, and promotion of human rights. He also continued SALT negotiations with the Soviet Union.Incorrect
Question 7 of 10
7. Question1 points
Jimmy Carter won the 1976 presidential election byCorrect
In the wake of government distrust following the Watergate Scandal, Jimmy Carter was able to win the 1976 presidential race by presenting himself as a political out- sider. Carter had graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy and served as an engineering officer, and he later went on to serve as the governor of Georgia. He became known for rejecting many of the formal and ceremonial practices of the presidential office. This, how- ever, generated criticism from those who thought he was downplaying the dignity of his office. After his election, however, he found that being a political outsider had its disadvan- tages. He and his inexperienced advisers had difficulty promoting his agenda. He did find some success in deregulating certain parts of American industry such as the railroads and lifting price controls on oil and natural gas. This further alienated him from fellow mem- bers of the Democratic Party who supported these regulations. His attempt to raise taxes on gasoline sales further hurt his popular support. He felt that convincing people to use less energy and drive less would make the nation less vulnerable to OPEC’s price increases, which had plagued the nation since 1973. Despite opposition, he did manage to pass the
1978 Energy Act, which imposed higher taxes on cars that inefficiently used gas, called for alternative energy sources, deregulated prices on domestic oil and natural gas, and offered tax incentives for homeowners who pursued energy efficiency in their homes. The Moral Majority, a conservative Christian political organization, played a major role in the 1980 election, helping to elect Carter’s Republican challenger, Ronald Reagan.Incorrect
Question 8 of 10
8. Question1 points
The 1978 peace agreement between Israel and Egypt was called theCorrect
One successful action of the Carter administration was ending the war between Egypt and Israel with the signing of the Camp David Accords in 1978. The Middle East had become unstable as the Arab nations and Israel had engaged in several conflicts between 1967 and 1973. In 1978, Carter was able to get the Egyptian leader, Anwar el-Sadat, and the Israeli leader, Menachem Begin, to sign the Camp David Accords, a treaty that would lay the groundwork for peace. Under the treaty, Israel agreed to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula, and in return, Egypt formally recognized Israel as a sovereign nation. The Helsinki Accords were signed by Ford in 1975. The agreement between nations called for economic cooperation, protection of human rights, and respect for territorial boundaries. The Geneva Accords were created in 1967 as an attempt to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The SALT I and II agreements were created first by Nixon (SALT I) and then by Carter (SALT II) with the Soviet Union’s Brezhnev to slow the nuclear arms race between the two superpowers.Incorrect
Question 9 of 10
9. Question1 points
What international incident helped Ronald Reagan defeat Jimmy Carter in 1980?Correct
Jimmy Carter’s inability to solve the Iran hostage crisis in 1980 helped the Republican presidential challenger win the election in 1980. For decades prior to the incident, the United States had backed the shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi. However, in 1979, a fundamentalist Islamic revolution erupted in the nation. The shah fled the nation and was replaced by the religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini, who was strongly anti-Western and planned to make Iran into a conservative state. Carter allowed the deposed shah to seek refuge in the United States. This caused Iranian revolutionaries to seize the American embassy in Iran and take 52 Americans hostage. Carter took several steps to free the hostages, including freezing Iranian assets in the United States and launching a failed military rescue mission. Unlike the Iran hostage crisis, the Camp David Accords illustrated a success for Carter: negotiation of a peace deal between Israel and Egypt. SALT I was signed by President Nixon with the Soviet leader Brezhnev to limit the production of nuclear weapons. The Iran-Contra Affair was a scandal during the Reagan administra- tion. The president’s office was caught in 1986 selling arms to Iran despite an embargo on weapons sales to that nation. The First Persian Gulf War took place in 1991 during the administration of President George H. W. Bush in response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.Incorrect
Question 10 of 10
10. Question1 points
What were the two major areas of focus of Ronald Reagan’s economic plan?Correct
Ronald Reagan’s election in 1980 marked a resurgence of the conservative move- ment that wanted to lower taxes and reduce the size of the federal government. Reagan and fellow conservatives were critical of the New Deal and Great Society programs, believing they led to an overexpansion of the federal government and increased the tax burden. In doing so, Reagan began to cut funding to many government programs such as urban development and the federal assistance programs for the poor through the 1981 Budget Reconciliation Act. This act cut funding to education, welfare, and other social assistance programs. Reagan did, however, increase the size of the military budget by nearly $12 bil- lion. Conservatives such as Reagan rejected Keynesian economics, which believed economic growth resulted from the government providing jobs and financial assistance to workers, and adopted an economic theory known as supply-side economics. According to supply- side economics, also known as trickle-down economics, economic growth is best achieved by deregulation and government tax cuts to business and investment. This would allow companies to expand, increase production, and then hire more workers. While the nation did make some economic gains under the Reagan administration, the gap between the rich and poor greatly increased, the conditions of America’s urban centers drastically declined, and the national deficit soared, reaching over $3 trillion in 1990.Incorrect