Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act – Part 2
Consistent with the Constitutional provisions, Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act was enacted in 1986. The Act regulates employment of children in non-hazardous occupations and processes. There are at present 18 hazardous occupation and 65 processes, where employment of children is prohibited. A child shall not permit to work in any establishment in excess of such number of hours, as may be prescribed for such establishment or class of establishments.
The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act , 1986 enacted to prohibit the engagement of children below the age of fourteen years in factories, mines and hazardous employments and to regulate their conditions of work in certain other employments. It extends to whole of India.
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- Question 1 of 10
1. Question1 points
The coining of the term iron curtain is attributed to which leader?Correct
In 1946, former British prime minister Winston Churchill gave a speech in Ful- ton, Missouri. He announced that an “iron curtain” had been spread across Europe, divid- ing the continent between free democratic nations and countries forced under authoritarian rule. This notion of a divided Europe was furthered in April 1949 with the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) by the democratic nations, and in 1955 with the formation of the Warsaw Pact by the Soviet Union and its satellite states. Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both instituted policies to address the threat of authoritarian states on the other side of the iron curtain through their administrations. The Truman Doctrine was created in 1947 to contain the spread of communism into Greece and Turkey. This policy was continued to protect other nations throughout the Cold War. Truman’s secretary of state, George Marshall, unveiled his reconstruction plan for Europe (called the Marshall Plan) in part to strengthen European democracies in order to protect them from Soviet influence. Eisenhower’s presidency also took on the fight against the spread of communism, adopting a policy of massive retaliation and the Eisenhower Doctrine, which attempted to keep Soviet influence out of the Middle East.Incorrect
- Question 2 of 10
2. Question1 points
George F. Kennan most strongly supported which policy?Correct
George F. Kennan was a diplomat, stationed in Moscow, who wrote what has become known as the Long Telegram in 1946. In this telegram and a later essay entitled “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947), he argued that the Soviet Union was expansionist and its influence needed to be contained. He especially stressed the containment of Soviet influence in areas that were of strategic importance to the United States. Kennan’s idea of containment became the basis for the Truman Doctrine, issued in February 1947, and the Marshall Plan, announced in June of the same year. His notion of containment also influ- enced the formation of NATO in 1949, American military activities during the Korean and Vietnam Wars, U.S. policy toward Cuba after the rise of Castro, and other defining aspects of U.S. diplomacy throughout the Cold War.Incorrect
- Question 3 of 10
3. Question1 points
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan were similar in that theyCorrect
Following the Second World War, the United States adopted policies that were intended to help rebuild war-torn Europe, promote self-determination, and contain the spread of Soviet influence. After Great Britain announced in 1947 that it could no longer afford to aid the Greek government’s fight against the communist insurgents, President Truman asked Congress for nearly $400 million in military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey. Truman stated that it was the duty of the United States to support free nations that were fighting to resist communist domination. The Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program, was instituted in 1947 in response to fears that communist organizations were gaining strength in democratic nations across Europe. The Marshall Plan illustrated the United States’ belief that American aid in reconstruction would allow for economic recovery and create strong democracies. The Soviet Union openly rejected the Marshall Plan and pressured its satellite nations to not participate in the program.Incorrect
- Question 4 of 10
4. Question1 points
What was the Berlin Airlift?Correct
The Berlin Airlift describes the delivery of nearly 13,000 tons of supply aid by British and American aircraft following a Soviet blockade of the portions of Berlin con- trolled by the western allies. Following the end of the Second World War, Germany was divided into four occupied zones. The three western zones were controlled by the United States, Britain, and France, while the eastern zone was occupied by the Soviet Union. In
1948, the western allies agreed to merge their occupied territories into one democratic German state called the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). The Soviet Union responded in 1949 by creating a communist state called the Democratic Republic of Ger- many (East Germany). A problem arose, however, because the western allies also had claim to the western part of the German capital of Berlin. After East Germany was created as a communist state, many East Germans fled the nation by traveling to western Berlin and flying to a free state such as the United States or Canada. Stalin responded by creating a blockade around the city to stop the western allies’ access to the capital. The people of West Berlin would quickly run out of food and other necessities without western support, but Truman decided to avoid war by forgoing the use of military force. Instead, the United States and Britain began an airlift of these supplies. It lasted until 1949, when the Soviet Union agreed to end its blockade.Incorrect
- Question 5 of 10
5. Question1 points
The formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact were similar in that theyCorrect
NATO was created in April 1949, and the Warsaw Pact was established in 1955. Both held a policy of mutual military assistance and collective security against an attack made by a nation outside of the treaty organization. Though the United Nations was cre- ated to promote peace in the postwar world, the Soviet Union’s position as a member of the Security Council allowed it to veto many of the organization’s intended actions. Western nations began to feel that another institution was needed to protect them from potential Soviet aggression. In 1949, the United States, Canada, France, Great Britain, and eight other nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to protect the West from pos- sible Soviet-led communist aggression. This marked a significant shift in American foreign policy, which since the Monroe Doctrine had avoided permanent military alliances with European powers. In 1955, the Soviet Union retaliated by issuing the Warsaw Pact with its satellite states in Eastern Europe, which also held a policy of mutual assistance, thus further- ing the notion of Churchill’s “iron curtain.”Incorrect
- Question 6 of 10
6. Question1 points
The communist revolution in China was led byCorrect
In 1949, the popular communist armies under the leadership of Mao Zedong captured the Chinese capital of Peking (Beijing), defeating the Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi. Jiang Jieshi and his followers set up a provisional government in exile on the island of Taiwan. The United States was shocked by the fall of China to communism, and this furthered the government’s resolve to prevent the further spread of communism in Asia. This resolve was illustrated by the efforts to defeat the communist leader Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam. Beginning in 1954, the United States began providing assistance to the anticom- munist government in Vietnam, and after the Gulf of Tonkin incident in 1963, the United States began the long-term military escalation that became the Vietnam War. Deng Xiaop-ing came into power in China in 1981. He adopted some progressive reforms for China, highlighted by the Four Modernizations, which focused on agriculture, industry, science, and defense, and allowed for limited ownership of private property and some free market policies. Kim Il Sung was the leader of North Korea through much of the Cold War. He forged alliances with both the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. In the
1950s, his military invaded the democratic South Korea, sparking the Korean War.Incorrect
- Question 7 of 10
7. Question1 points
The major function of HUAC was toCorrect
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was originally estab- lished in 1938 to investigate German-American involvement with the Ku Klux Klan and the Nazi Party, but it is better remembered for its postwar activities in trying to probe for communist infiltration of the government and Hollywood. This was illustrated in 1947 when leading writers, directors, and actors were called before a House committee meet- ing to address the perceived communist infiltration into the film industry. A group of ten participants, who later became known as the Hollywood Ten, refused to participate and were held in contempt by the committee, jailed, and later blacklisted within the film industry. The actions of HUAC are often confused with the actions taken by Senator Joseph McCarthy. While both HUAC and McCarthy’s committee sought to root out communist infiltration, HUAC was run by the House of Representatives, and McCarthy operated exclusively through his Senate committee. The funding provided to returning veterans so they could pursue college or vocational training after leaving the military was a provision of the Montgomery G.I. Bill, which Congress passed in 1944.Incorrect
- Question 8 of 10
8. Question1 points
The Crucible by Arthur Miller was an analogy of the Salem Witch Trials of New England andCorrect
The American author and playwright wrote The Crucible in early 1950s in response to the actions taken by a Senate investigative committee led by Joseph McCarthy. Miller compared the witch hunts of Salem, Massachusetts, during the colonial period with McCarthy’s actions toward American citizens during the nation’s second Red Scare. Like Arthur Miller’s victims of the Salem witch hunt, the victims of McCarthyism were force- fully submitted to interrogation where they had little option but to confess, regardless of their guilt, and release the names of coconspirators. McCarthyism quickly declined in 1954 after Senator McCarthy attempted to investigate the U.S. Army for communist infiltration. This alienated even his staunchest supporters, and in December 1954, the Senate censured McCarthy for the remainder of his term.Incorrect
- Question 9 of 10
9. Question1 points
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed forCorrect
In 1953, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed for passing information about atomic weapons to the Soviet Union during the Second World War. This was the second of two spy cases that defined the era. The first began in 1948, when Alger Hiss, a State Department official, was investigated and found guilty of being a former member of the Communist Party and a spy. In 1950, he was found guilty and imprisoned for four years. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were known members of the Communist Party and found guilty on charges of wartime espionage. Many critics questioned whether the trials of Hiss and the Rosenbergs were fair or merely the product of Red Scare hysteria. Records made available after the Cold War, however, seem to confirm the guilt of Hiss and Julius Rosenberg; Ethel Rosenberg’s involvement remains unclear.Incorrect
- Question 10 of 10
10. Question1 points
During the decade following the Second World War, the U.S. national economyCorrect
From 1945 to 1960, the American gross national product increased from around $212 billion to over $500 billion. This economic prosperity was also reflected in the homes of Americans, as the per capita income of the American family rapidly increased. Corporate expansion was also consistently growing during this time period. Combined, these types of growth contributed to a strong consumer economy. To avoid the risky investment practices that had led to the Depression, companies began to form conglomerates—corporations that owned diversified businesses. Franchises, or businesses contracted from a larger company, also began to emerge. Together, they helped fuel the consumer economy that defined the postwar years in the United States.Incorrect