India is a country of temples and people have beenÂ congregatingÂ at temples for various reasons. Different religions have their own temple .Over of period of time,Â because ofÂ wealthÂ and influence temple had on masses, it was a seat of power struggle. Certain classes orÂ castesÂ were not let entry in temples. These led to different kind of movements in Â the country.
One such movement was theÂ Gurdwara Reform MovementÂ ,which was actually a legislation Â passed by the Punjab Legislative Council whichÂ marked the culmination of the struggle of the Sikh people from 1920-1925 to wrest control of their places of worship from the mahants or priests into whose hands they had passed during the eighteenth century. The ten questions given below relate to temple and religious -political movements of Akali Dal and Shirmani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) and others.
10 Question on Indian History-Gurdwara Reform
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1. Question1 points
What was the main objective of Akali Movement?Correct
After the British occupation of Punjab in 1849, Sikhism was subjected to active onslaught first by the proselytizing Christian Missions and later by the militant sect known as Arya Samaj. Infact the decay of Sikhism had started in the very heyday of Sikh power. Brahminism had asserted itself with the rise of Dogras and Brahmins at the Sikh court in the days of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. With them had once again come the worship of stones, idols and tombs. Hinduism had actually pushed images into the holy precincts of a number of Sikh shrines where in contradiction to the spirit of Sikhism, idol worship was being practised. A number of persons, who posed as Gurus had arrogated to themselves the position and priveleges to which they had laid claims as self-appointed successors of Guru Nanak. They also reintroduced Brahminical rites and rituals connected with birth, marriage and death, and encouraged pilgrimages to Hardwar and other Hindu sacred places. The relapse of Sikhism into Hinduism was thus in progressIncorrect
2. Question1 points
The committee which made to control and manage the Golden Temple and Akal Takht and other Gurdwaras was……?Correct
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (Punjabi: ਸ਼੍ਰੋਮਣੀ ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧਕ ਕਮੇਟੀ) (also called the parliament of the Sikhs) is an organization in India responsible for the upkeep of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. SGPC also administers Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar. Gurdwaras in Delhi are the administered by Delhi Sikh Gurudwara Management Committee. These committees comprise of officials elected in open conclaves held at Harmandir Sahib in which all Sikhs may participate.Incorrect
3. Question1 points
What was Akali Dal and SGPC (Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee) accepted as their creed?Correct
Akali Dal was formed on December 14, 1920 as a task force of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, the Sikh religious body. The Akali Dal considers itself the principal representative of Sikhs. Sardar Sarmukh Singh Chubbal was the first president of a unified proper Akali Dal, but it was under Master Tara Singh that Akali Dal became a force to reckon with. The party launched the Punjabi Suba movement to create a Sikh majority state in the undivided East Punjab under the leadership of Sant Fateh Singh. In 1966, the modern-day East Punjab was formed, but its division led to bitter conflict. Akali Dal came to power in Punjab, but many times the party’s governments were dismissed by the Indian National Congress ruling at the federal level.Incorrect
4. Question1 points
In which year SGPC passed a resolution in favor of Non Cooperation Movement?Correct
In May 1921, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee passed the resolution in support of non-cooperation. Master Tara Singh was mainly responsible for connecting the Gurdwara Reform Movement with the non-cooperation movement.Incorrect
5. Question1 points
Who was the head of SGPC in Oct 1921, when govt. surrendered all keys to SGPC head?Correct
It was the Jallianvala Bagh massacre of 1919 which brought Kharak Singh actively into Sikh politics In 1920, he became president of the Central Sikh league council, which under his direction led the Sikhs to participate in the non-co-operation movement launched by Mahatma Galldlll In 1920’S, he was elected president of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee and in the year following also president of the Punjab Provincial Congress Committee. He successfully led in 1921-22 the agitation for the restoration to the Sikhs of the keys of the Golden Templc treasury seized by the British Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar, and underwent during this campaign the first of his numerous jail terms. He was jailed on 26 November 1921 for making an anti government speech, he was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment on 2 December 1921, but was released on 17January 1922 when the keys of the toshakhana were also surrendered to him. He was, however, rearrested soon and, on 4 April 1922, was awarded one year’s jail for running a factory for manufacturing kirpans, one of the religious symbols of the Sikhs, and another three years on charges of making seditious speeches. He was sent to jail in distant Dera Gazi Khan (now in Pakistan), where in protest against the forced removal of the turbans of Sikh and Gandhi caps of non-Sikh political prisoners, he discarded all his clothes except his kachahira or drawers. Despite the extreme weather conditions of the place, he remained barebacked until he was released after his full term (twice extended for non-obedience of orders) on 4 June 1927. He had unanimously been elected president in absentia of the Gurdwara Central Board (later redesignated Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Commitee) constituted under the Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925, and was reselected to the high office after fresh elections in 1930. He resigned soon after, although he continued to work both for national independence andfor the protection of Sikh interests.Incorrect
6. Question1 points
Which day was observed as All Kerala Temple entry day?CorrectIncorrect
7. Question1 points
After which session KPCC (Kerala provincial Congress Committee ) took up the eradication of untouchability as an urgent issue?CorrectIncorrect
8. Question1 points
On 30 March.satyagrahis marched from satyagraha camps to the temple (for issue of untouchability) …that satyagraha was popularly known as ……….?Correct
Vaikom Satyagraha (1924–25) was a satyagraha (movement) in Travancore, India (now part of Kerala) against untouchability in Hindu society. The movement was centered at the Shiva temple at Vaikom, near Kottayam.The Satyagraha aimed at securing freedom of movement for all sections of society through the public roads leading to the Sri Mahadevar Temple at Vaikom.Incorrect
9. Question1 points
Who was popularly known as Periyar?Correct
Erode Venkata Ramasamy (Tamil: ஈரோடு வேங்கட இராமசாமி ) (17 September 1879 – 24 December 1973), affectionately called by his followers as Periyar (Tamil: பெரியார்), Thanthai Periyar or E. V. R., was a businessman, politician, Indian independence and social activist, who started the Self-Respect Movement or the Dravidian Movement and proposed the creation of an independent state called Dravida Nadu comprising South India. He is also the founder of the socio-cultural organisation, Dravidar KazhagamIncorrect
10. Question1 points
In Nov. 1936, Maharaja of Travancore issued a proclamation throwing open all govt. controlled temples to all Hindus irrespective of caste and madras followed same in 1938 when its ministry was headed by …………….?Correct
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (Tamil: சக்ரவர்த்தி ராஜகோபாலாச்சாரி Cakravartī Rācakōpālācārī) (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972), informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, independence activist, politician, writer and statesman. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India. He also served as leader of the Indian National Congress, Premier of the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, Minister for Home Affairs of the Indian Union and Chief Minister of Madras state. Rajaji founded the Swatantra Party and was one of the first recipients of India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. He vehemently opposed the use of nuclear weapons and was a proponent of world peace and disarmament. During his lifetime, he also acquired the nickname Mango of Salem.Incorrect